Главной задачей при обеспечении безопасности атомной электростанции состоит в том, чтобы гарантировать, что ее работа не вызывает радиоактивной опасности, наличие которой может подвергнуть опасности рабочих или близлежащее населения, или может другим образом повлиять на окружающую среду. Радиоактивное облучение, являющееся результатом деятельности атомной электростанции, должно быть настолько низким, насколько это возможно.
Окружающая среда, радиоактивные отходы, ядерная энергия, управление отходами, права человека.
INTRODUCTION Despite conservation efforts and more efficient usage, energy demand continues to increase in the world. The choice of energy systems is one of national policy involving the resolution of sometimes conflicting values and the balancing of economic, technical, social, institutional and environmental factors. Those values placing a high importance on a country’s development and economic growth and those values placing a high importance on maintaining or preserving a high-quality environment often clash. Judgements also need to be made on how much risk community should be subject to. Public perception of risk, regardless of how it is derived, is as important for decision-making as analyses by experts, although the term "public" applies to many different groups who may perceive the risks of a particular situation so differently. Environmental protection is one goal which wants to be considered and balanced with others. The weight given to any one goal will vary according to national values, needs, and objectives. Whole man’s activities, including the use of energy, are likely to affect the environment in which he lives. Energy systems pose no unique problems which set them apart from other sources of risk. All methods of supplying energy for industrialized societies carry certain environmental, health andeconomic societal costs. The environmental aspects of nuclear power plants and the facilities of the associated fuel cycle are not very different from any other large-scale industrial activity. However, the radioactive materials that are part of the various fuel cycle operations, particularly those radioactive materials generated during the operation of nuclear reactors, have to be strictly controlled. Many factors are considered when assessing the environmental and public health consequences of any industrial activity. These include the expected risk to workers and to the public outside the facilities; the kind and extent of environmental pollution; the kind, amount and toxicity of wastes to be handled and isolated from the environment; the rational use of natural resources, including land and water and secondary requirements, such as transport needs; the potential for accidents with serious consequences. It is very difficult to compare energy sources, and even more difficult to quantify some factors to provide a firm guideline in decision-making, but such comparisons must be made. Thus, judgements are involved which have to be viewed in the context of the general background of benefits and risks a society is willing to accept. Environmental protection philosophy One can outline a three-part environmental protection philosophy: the first concerns the conservation of resources; the second the maintenance of an ecological status quo; and the third protection of human health. Such philosophies can be given effect by the setting of standards and criteria. However, it is often impossible to integrate and satisfy frequently qualitative and conflicting environmental goals. Conservation of natural resources does not mean merely setting aside parks and wilderness areas, or managing and exploiting natural resources such as timber, minerals, and energy supplies, but also takes into account the use of land, water, and air. Maintenance of an ecological status quo as an environmental philosophy concerns itself with the biological or living parts of the environment. All man’s activities disturb or change the fragile biosphere in which he livesThe arguments revolve around how much change or disturbance should be permitted. The concept of protection of human health is nothing new. Radiation protection standards and criteria have been in existence since the very early days of the nuclear power industry. The goals in this area revolve around how much risk society can tolerate. However, in the area of radiation protection, there are internationally agreed standards and criteria. The basis of all forms of radiation protection is the limitation of radiation doses which requires that each source of exposure be justified in relation to its benefits or those of any available alternative; that any necessary exposure be kept as low as reasonably achievable; and that dose equivalents to individuals do not exceed specified limits. The limit recommended by the International Commission Radiological Protection (ICRP) for radiation protection of workers is that the effective dose should not exceed 50 Ms’ to any worker in any year. The observance of this limit, and of the requirements noted above, generally ensures that the average annual dose is considerably lower than this limit, often by a factor of ten. The dose limit does not include exposures from natural sources or from medical treatment. To study the Relevance of the Human Rights to the Environmental Rights The first section: the meaning of the human rights The meaning of human rights is the general privileges that every individual human being owns based on his nature, essence and status, both for being a human and also for the role he plays in the universe, in public terms and in the social organizations. The purpose of the human rights is to establish and enhance those life conditions that make it possible for the human beings, as the best form of creatures, to show his capabilities and talents without any obstacles. The realization of the human rights and prevention of its violation or “protection of human rights” requires legal provisions to be legislated which are obligatory and guaranteed to obey, so people can reach their rights through them. It is necessary to mention that when we talk about human rights, it is actually three generations of human rights that we talk about: The first generation of human rights or civic and political law, the second generation of human rights or the economical, social and cultural law and the third generation or the correlation law. The third generation of human rights which is considered the correlation law (the right of the healthy environment, the right of the development, the peace right and the right of the human common heritage) indicates the individual and collective rights and also the responsibilities of people and organizations; rights that have the specifics of both the first and the second generations for presenting before the governments and are eligible to ask from them. In other words, in comparison to the previous two human rights generations, the characteristic of the correlation right is that obtaining this right requires the government not to interfere (in the matter of freedom) and at the same time it needs the government to provide them the facilities , and also it needs all the facilities and the associated, targeted efforts of all the players in this field (the governments, international organizations, people and individuals from the public and private law). Among the fourfold instances of the correlation law, the environmental law has out turned the other instanced of third generation laws for several reasons especially the relative consensus of the developed and under development countries toward the necessity for protecting the environment and also the common concern of human beings about the harmful consequences of destruction of the environment. The second section: the correlation between human rights and the right to benefit from the healthy environment The legal support of human rights is a means to reach and gain the environmental protection and if there is a possibility for the human rights to be protected legally, it is the same as the environment is put under legal protection. Today, the undeniable correlation between the environmental laws and the basic human rights has been accepted more than before, although the universal declaration of human rights does not directly point at the environmental laws, today the environmental laws which have been interwoven with the right to live (without which no other rights can be obtained) gradually are going to be recognized. On the other hand, the environmental laws just like the human rights dominate all the activities of humans and affects whatever they do. The right to benefit from the healthy environment as one of the complementary results of humanism in a 20-year-old process today is a certain right and owns a fixed situation in the international law and also in the domestic laws of most of the countries. It is necessary here to talk about the basics and contents of the right to benefit from the healthy environment and to mention those instances of the human rights which have some environmental dimension. The basics of the right to benefit from the healthy environment For every phenomenon to be enhanced, it must reach a level in which it is possible to justify its existence. Environment is also a collection of natural phenomenon that in order to establish balance among the rival forces in the nature, binds the life of a biological group and has strong theoretical foundation which makes it impossible to be recognized without the study of the foundations. A: the right of human to live The life of all the creatures on the planet earth is interwoven and there is a vast correlation between them which can be called the life circle, but in this correlation the heavier side has always been on humans that mean the life of the creatures is affected by human deeds and this effect can either be harmful or beneficial. According to the 3rd article of the declaration of human rights “each person has the right of life, freedom and personal security” and also according to the 6th article of the first section the international treaty of civic and political rights “the right of life is of natural rights of human beings and this right is under protection by law, and no one can be deprived from life impudently”, it can be conveyed that the right to live is a certain right that has been identified and specified in the international society. For this reason, the right of life can be respected only when the conditions for it to be observed are at hand. It is obvious that the right to benefit from the healthy life is not obtained unless the healthy environment is at hand. According to the first section of the UN conference prologue on the healthy environment and humans, it can be deducted that the right to benefit from the healthy environment leads to his use of basic rights, among them the right to live. It is natural that healthy life can be presented to human beings where there is a healthy environment. Human beings can be rewarded the right to have a life in accordance with the value of the nature of the human beings, and even it can be awarded to the creatures, so as we can see, as long as we do not have a healthy environment we cannot benefit from the living right befitting the human being and his value. B: the right of the future generations The environment has always been the launching pad of the human being toward the development and advancement, but people harm the environment by using unfair methods. It must be put in mind that the environment in which we live and to which our life depends has been providing most of our needs for millions of years and it is through the healthy environment that the human being has paved its advancing route in life, that’s why we should also note the rights of the future generations to benefit the healthy environment because all humans and other creatures, the present generation and also the future one, have an equal right to live and prosper on the planet earth. The environment does not only belong to one generation, just as the past generations have benefited from it and now we are benefiting from it, it is the natural right of the future generations to benefit from a healthy environment. The first principle of the declaration of Stockholm approved in 1972 points at the right of the future generations to use the environment and prescribes “… and is responsible to protect and improve the environment for the present and future generations…” This principle points to the fact that human beings in addition to protecting and improving their environment and along with the right to have a healthy environment preserve this right for the future generation so that they can benefit from this human right, too The study of nuclear energy as per request Nuclear energy is also a form of energy which is produced from the interactions inside atom’s nucleus. This energy originates from two sources: nuclear fission of heavy and light atoms. The first time this kind of energy released from nucleus was June 26th 1945. In fact, it was the date future history of human beings started. Reviewing a subject like nuclear energy is very hard, due to its twofold usage in either waging war or peaceful activities. It is very hard to have an unbiased discussion because at one side there is continuous developments in science and technology which enabled human being to make an advanced but destructive weapon by using this energy (its destructive effects on environment cannot be denied), and on the other hand its various peaceful usage and substitution for gas and oil for producing electricity and its notable usage in agriculture and industry, diagnosing and curing diseases show its increasing importance. It must be noted that even in these cases the dangerous wastes remained from nuclear activities or facilities for enrichment, also nuclear power plants not being standard, can lead to disastrous pollutions. So, being assure of sufficient safety level in power plants and all nuclear facilities, also reducing their probable danger, must be considered. Being assure of sufficient physical protection for the staff of these facilities and issuing the necessary warrants in all levels are among the responsibilities that must be noted in the national and international level. In nuclear activates, radiation is especially of great concern to the public and to the environment. So that nuclear safety and radiation protection consequently have the same objective. The protection of man and the environment against the harmful of ionizing radiation. Nuclear plants are carefully designed, built and monitored to prevent releases of radioactive materials. NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEM Twenty-five years after the Nuclear Waste Policy Act was enacted, the government’s nuclear waste disposal program is being impacted by legal challenges, technical problems, scandal and congressional funding cuts. As a result, the schedule for the proposed Yucca Mountain disposal site in Nevada has slipped almost two decades past the original opening date of January 1998. The 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act imposes a limit of 70,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive wastes. If that amount is exceeded, the law requires a second repository to be selected. Under the law, DOE spent fuel and high-level wastes are to make up no more than 10 present of this limit. The DOE concluded in 2004 that 63,000 metric tons of nuclear spent fuel could be stored in the Yucca Mountain site, but continued operation of reactors would generate about 105,000 metric tons by 2030. In effect, by the time the Yucca Mountain Site would be full, nuclear power plants will have accumulated nearly the same amount of spent fuel stored at reactor sites today — requiring the establishment of a second repository. In response to these problems, DOE is seeking to restore the closed fuel cycle through deployment of large-scale nuclear reprocessing and “fast” reactors. By doing this, GNEP proponents claim that a much smaller amount of high-level nuclear waste would have to be disposed in a geological repository, while trouble- some stocks of weapons materials would be greatly reduced. Instead of using fast reactors to make more fuel than they consume, GNEP advocates propose to harness this technology to transmute or “burn” long- lived radioactive materials, such as plutonium into less problematic isotopes. What Is Radioactivity? The atomic nucleus—the tiny central region of an atom—consists of subatomic particles called protons and neutrons (sometimes referred to as nucleons). Although neutrons carry no electric charge, protons carry a positive electric charge, which causes them to repel each other with a force that increases the closer they are to each other. However, they are also bound together by a strong nuclear force many times greater than its repulsive electric force at nuclear distances (less than 10-15 m). At greater distances, the strong nuclear force falls almost to zero and is easily overcome by the electrical repulsion. When radioactive decay occurs, a nucleus changes energy states in a way that the total energy of the nucleus is decreased. Energy lost by the nucleus through this rearrangement is car- ride off by gamma, alpha, or beta particles. An atom consists of a nucleus surrounded by a cloud of orbiting electrons. When the electrons in an atom change their energy state by moving closer to the nucleus, the atom emits photons (packets, or quanta, of light energy proportional to the frequency of an electromagnetic wave) of visible light. The energy lost by atoms when these changes occur is millions of times less than the energy lost by the nucleus when protons and neutrons rearrange themselves; this is because the electric force holding the electrons in place is millions of times weaker than the strong force binding the nucleons together. Gamma radiation is very high energy electromagnetic radiation. The photons emitted when nucleons change position—gamma (or γ) rays—have much higher energies than the visible light given off by atoms. This process is called gamma decay. Gamma decays release energetic photons but do not change the number of pro- tons and neutrons in the nucleus, so its chemical identity or mass does not change. Gammas can travel many centimetres through matter but do relatively little damage along their paths. There- fore, it is difficult to protect against gamma radiation because it requires a lot of mass to stop this radiation. Typically lead sheets are used. What is radioactive waste? Definition of radioactive waste Radioactive waste is any material that is either radioactive itself or is contaminated by radioactivity, for which no further use is envisaged. Government policy means that certain nuclear materials such as uranium, plutonium and spent nuclear fuel have not been declared as wastes by their owners.In other words,The term ‘radioactive waste’ covers a wide variety of material, ranging from wastes that can be put safely into a dustbin to items that need remote handling, heavy shielding and cooling to be managed safely Management of radioactive waste Radioactive waste is produce d during the generation of nuclear power and the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized, and considerable experience has been gainedin this field. The IAEA's Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme isaimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and standards for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. This is accomplished within the IAEA Safety Series in an internally consistent set of documents that reflect an international consensus. The RADWASS publications will provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed documents to assist in the derivation of, and to complement, national criteria, standards and practices. The Safety Series scheme consists of a four-level hierarchy of publications — with a Safety Fundamentals document at the highest level, followed by Safety Standards, Safety Guides and Safety Practices at the other three levels. With respect to the RADWASS programme, the set of publications is currently undergoing in-depth review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Series . The present document is the Safety Fundamentals document of the envisaged RADWASS hierarchy. It has been developed through a series of consultants and Technical Committee meetings . It was reviewed by the International Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (INWAC) and by Member States and wasrecommended for publication by an Extended INWAC. It was approved by the IAEA's Board of Governors in March 1995 for publication in the Safety Series . The IAEA wishes to express its appreciation to all those who assisted in the drafting and review of this document. The Basic Steps of Radioactive Waste Management Waste Management Strategies Legal System for the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste The national legislation for the management and safety regulation of radioactive waste includes the Radioactive Wastes Control Act and the Atomic Energy Act. The Radioactive Wastes Control Act reduces the risk involved in the management radioactive waste by outlining the requirements for the safe and efficient management of radioactive waste, to protect public safety while achieving environmental preservation. This legislation is comprised of the establishment of a fundamental plan for radioactive waste management, the establishment of the Korea Radioactive waste Management Corporation (KRMC), and the installation of the Radioactive Waste Control Fund, and details the following fundamental points regarding radioactive waste management: a) Scope of radioactive waste management and the management businesses b) Operation standards for radioactive waste management facilities c) Transfer of radioactive waste d) Cost of radioactive waste management The Atomic Energy Act outlines the basis and the fundamental points related to the use, development, and safety regulation of nuclear power. This legislation includes items regarding the nuclear power committee, the nuclear power safety committee, the integral plan for nuclear power promotion, and the construction and operation authorization of nuclear power facilities, and details the following fundamental points regarding the safety of radioactive waste disuse facilities: a) Authorization of the construction/operation of disuse facilities b) Examination on the installation/operation of disuse facilities c) Regulation on radioactive waste processing (including abandonment in the sea) d) Enclosure and transportation of radioactive waste Which organ is Responsible for implementation of management of radioactive waste? Government Policy states that the producers and owners of radioactive waste are responsible for developing their own waste management strategies. NII requires licensees to produce and maintain a strategy which represents an overview of their approach to the current and future management of radioactive material and radioactive waste. It should cover the complete life-cycle of the material including routine discharges of liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes. The strategy should not be restricted to the consideration of the radioactive material which licensees currently regard as radioactive waste. It should cover all nuclear matter, including materials held in temporary store prior to operational use, spent fuel and other stocks of fissile material which may, at some future time, be reused within the nuclear fuel cycle, but which have the potential to become radioactive waste in the future. An additional aspect of Government Policy is that radioactive waste management should be carried out within a framework of sustainable development. A widely quoted definition of this concept is ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Issues of relevance to sustainable development are: -that wastes should be processed as soon as reasonably practicable, into a form which is safe for both the present and the future; -the storage arrangements should not impose undue responsibilities on future generations to manage the waste; -the storage arrangements should facilitate retrieval for retreatment if necessary, transfer to other stores and final disposal; -adequate records should be collected and preserved; and -provision should be made to cover the future costs of storage and disposal. 3. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT Responsible radioactive waste management requires the implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment since improperly managed radioactive waste could result in adverse effects to human healthor the environment now and in the future. Principle 1: Protection of human health Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way as to secure an acceptable level of protection for human health. - Many of the hazards associated with radioactive waste are similar to those associated with toxic waste from, for example, mining and chemical plant operations and should be controlled. However, the nature of radioactive waste implies another hazard, namely the possibility of exposure to ionizing radiation. An acceptable level of protection therefore needs to be provided. Particular attention needs to be paid to controlling the various ways by which humans might be exposed to radiation, and to ensuring that such exposure is within established national requirements. - National radiation protection requirements are established for purposes broader than radioactive waste management. In the establishment of acceptable levels of protection, account is typically taken of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the IAEA and specifically the concepts of justification, optimization and dose limitation. The relevance of these concepts depends on the type of radioactive waste management activities. - Radioactive waste management activities are associated either with a practice, for example nuclear power generation, or with an intervention, for example following an accident. In the case of a practice, radioactive waste management should be taken into account in the justification of the entire practice giving rise to the radioactive waste, and therefore need not be justified separately: optimization and dose limitationremain applicable. In the case of an intervention, justification and optimization are required, but not the concept of dose limitation. - Human activities and their consequences may be separated by long time periods , for example, in the case of radioactive waste disposal. In such cases , planning for safe radioactive waste management should take into account the facts that the benefits and the exposures might affect populations separated by many generations, that long time periods lead to increased uncertainties in the results of safety assessments and that radionuclides decay. Principle 2: Protection of the environment Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way as to provide an acceptable level of protection of the environment. - Safe radioactive waste management includes keeping the releases from the various waste management steps to the minimum practicable. The preferred approach to radioactive waste management is concentration and containment of radionuclides rather than dilution and dispersion in the environment. However, as part of radioactive waste management, radioactive substances may be released within authorized limits as a legitimate practice into the air, water and soil, and also through the reuse of materials. Appropriate safety and control measures should be defined. - When radionuclides are release d into the environment, species other than humans can be expose d to ionizing radiation , and the impact s of such exposure should be taken into consideration. Since humans are among the most radiation sensitive organisms, however, their presence should generally be assumed in the assessment of impacts on the environment. - Radioactive waste disposal may have adverse effects on the future availability or utilization of natural resources, for example, land, forests, surface waters, groundwater’s and raw materials, over extended periods of time. Radioactive waste management, therefore, should be conducted in such a way as to limit, to the extent practicable, these effects. - Radioactive waste management activities may result in non-radiological environmental impacts, such as chemical pollution or alteration of natural habitats. Theseimpacts need to be considered and radioactive waste management undertaken with a level of environmental protection at least as good as that required of similar industrial activities. Principle 3: Protection beyond national borders Radioactive waste shall be manage d in such a way as to assure that possible effects on human health and the environment beyond national border s will be taken into account . - This principle is derived from an ethical concern for human health and the environment in other countries. It is based on the premise that a country has a duty to act responsibly and, as a minimum, not to impose effects on human health and the environment in other countries more detrimental than those which have been judged acceptable within its own borders. In fulfilling this duty a country should take into account recommendations of international bodies such as the ICRP and the IAEA, notably the concept of optimization of radiological protection. - In the case of normal release, potential release or migration of radionuclides across national borders, the country of origin could choose to find agreement regarding elaboration of this principle, for example, through exchange of information or arrangements with neighbours or affected countries. - Import and export of radioactive waste is the subject of the IAEA "Code of Practice on the International Trans boundary Movement of Radioactive Waste", which states in part that a State should receive radioactive waste for management or disposal only if it "has the administrative and technical capacity and regulatory structure tomanage and dispose of such waste in a manner consistent with international safety standards". CONCLUSION Management of radioactive waste is a great concern for public and is considered as a major issue of the nuclear industry. Governments frequently encounter difficulties when making decisions on radioactive waste management, especially when they are looking for a site for a disposal of radioactive waste. The way the public perceives the hazards and the impacts of radioactive waste often does not correspond to that of the specialists. So, it is highly important that those involved in these matters and the decisions makers take into account the concerns of the public in their decisions on this subject. However the ways to achieve this aim are not so clear and various means have been experienced in different countries, with more or less success. 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The question of radioactive pollutions and human rights to benefit from healthy environment
The main objective of the nuclear power plant safety is to ensure that its operation does not cause radiation hazards which could endanger safety of workers or population in the vicinity or could otherwise harm the environment. The radiation exposure arising from the operation of a nuclear power plant shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable.
Environment, Radioactive waste, Nuclear Power, management of waste, human right.