International Legal Mechanisms Of Responsibility For The Harm To Climate Leading To Change Of The State Territory Formation

Journal Issue:

Author Information: 

Doctor of Philosophy (Law), Associate Professor of the Department of International Law at the Institute of International Relations of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Abstract: 

In the present article author analyzed question international legal responsibility of state’s for harm done by the climatic changes caused by the emission of greenhouse gases in the course of activity in the power sphere, leading to flooding of the state territories formation. Such mechanisms are based on a number of international legal acts, from which the documents of the system UN FCCC play a key role, including both FCCC, and the Kyoto Protocol and the decisions made within the Conference of parties. At the same time there is a number of problems, unresolved within the modern international law, namely mechanisms of such responsibility realization and proof of connection existence between emissions of greenhouse gases by this state and flooding of other state territory which in principle have to lead to the responsibility occurrence. Author explains that this moment is especially important because international law doesn't forbid emissions of greenhouse gases itself. Besides, recently perspectives of climate changes began to be considered as a threat to peace and safety, what makes it possibility of implement other then UN FCCC mechanisms. Author notes that, for example, they are considered by the UN Security Council. In the conclusion author makes a statement that at this stage of development of international law we deal with a forming mechanism of the state’s international legal responsibility for the harm done by the climate changes caused by factors, including emission of greenhouse gases in the course of activity in the power sphere.

Keywords: 

international law, international legal responsibility, climate changes, international disputes resolution, EIA, responsibility mechanisms, international legal mechanisms.

REFERENCES: 

[1] Bekyashev D.K. Probely v regulirovanii mezhdunarodnoj migracii naseleniya, obuslovlennoj ekologicheskimi faktorami // Materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii «Mezhdunarodnyj pravoporyadok v sovremennom mire i rol Rossii v ego ukreplenii» po-svyashhennoj 90-letiyu D.I. Feldmana. M., 2014.
[2] Emelyanova N.N. K voprosu o podderzhanii ekologicheskoj bezopasnosti v XXI veke // Evrazijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal. 2012. №11.
[3] Konvenciya o statuse bezhencev (1951 g.). [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/refugees.shtml
[4] Konvenciya ob ocenke vozdejstviya na okruzhayushhuyu sredu v transgranichnom kontekste (1991 g.). // URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/env_assessment.shtml
[5] Proekt statej ob otvetstvennosti gosudarstv za mezhdunarodno-protivopravnye deyaniya (2001 g.) [Tekst] // Doklad Komissii mezhdunarodnogo prava o rabote ee pyatdesyat tretej sessii: dok. OON A/56/10. - Nyu-Jork: OON, 2001.
[6] Ramochnaya konvenciya Organizacii Ob"edinennyx Nacij ob izmenenii klimata (1992 g.). [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/climate_framework_c...
[7] Bіlockij S.D. Rol mіzhnarodnogo prava u rozvitku ekologіchnoї alternativi suchasnіj energeticі // Alternativna energetika і energetichna bezpeka v mіzhnarodnomu і nacіonalnomu pravі. Tematichnij dodatok do ukraїnskogo shhorіchnika mіzhnarodnogo prava. K.: PP «Fenіks», 2012.
[8] Bіlockij S.D. Koncepcіya transkordonnoї ekologo-energetichnoї shkodi // Naukovij vіsnik Uzhgorodskogo nacіonalnogo unіversitetu. Serіya Pravo. 2013. V. 23. Ch. ІІ. T. 3.
[9] Bіlockij S.D. Formuvannya ekologіchnogo poglyadu na energetiku v ramkax mіzhnarodnogo prava // Ukraїnskij shhorіchnik mіzhnarodnogo prava. 2009. № 1.
[10] Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the Convention, Contact Group on Enhanced Action on Adaptation and its Means of Implementation 3–4 // Non-paper № 41. Draft Text, 2009. [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.stakeholderforum.org/fileadmin/files/Non-Paper%2041.pdf
[11] Anote Tong, President of Kiribati, Speech at the Fifth Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts, and Islands, hosted by UNESCO and the government of France in Paris, France (May 3, 2010). // URL: http://www.globaloceans.org/sites/udel.edu.globaloceans/files/GOC5_Summa...
[12] Betaille J., Prieur M., Marguenaud J.P., Monediaire G., Drobenko B. Draft Convention on the International Status of Environmentally Displaced Persons [Text] // Revue européenne de droit de lenvironnement. Vol. 4. 2008.
[13] Biermann F., Boas I. Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Refugees // Global Environmental Politics. Vol. 10(1). 2010.
[14] Burkett M.A. The Nation Ex-Situ // Threatened Island Nations. Legal implications of rising seas and a changing climate / Edited by Michael B. Gerrard, Gregory E. Wannier. – Cambridge/New York: Cambridge university press, 2013.
[15] Case concerning certain phosphate lands in Nauru (Nauru v. Australia) (Preliminary objections) Summary of the Judgment of 26 June 1992. // URL: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?sum=413&code=naus&p1=3&p2=3&case...
[16] Case Concerning Certain Phosphate Lands in Nauru, Preliminary Objections (Nauru v. Australia). Judgment of 26 June 1992. // URL: http://www.mpil.de/en/pub/research/details/publications/institute/wcd.cf...
[17] Case Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland Proserpine/Whitsunday Branch Inc v Minister for the Environment& Heritage & Ors [2006] // Federal Court of Australia.- Vol. 736. – 2006. // URL: http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/cases/cth/FCA/2006/736.html
[18] Climate Change Liability / Edited by Michael Faure, Marjan Peeters. – Northampton: Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2011.
[19] Cullet P. Liability and Redress for Human-Induced Global Warming: To-wards an International Regime // Stanford Journal of International Law. Vol. 43(1). 2007.
[20] Decision -/CP. 19. Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage associated with climate change impacts (2013). [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://unfccc.int/files/meetings/warsaw_nov_2013/decisions/application/...
[21] Docherty B., Giannini T. Confronting a Rising Tide: A Proposal for a Convention on Climate Change Refugees // Harvard International Law Review. 2009. Vol. 33.
[22] Exchange of Notes constituting an agreement concerning a provisional maritime delimitation between two countries, France-Tuvalu, August 6, 1985-November 5, 1985 // United Nations Treaty Series. Vol. 1506. 1987.
[23] Farber D. The Case for Climate Compensation: Justice for Climate Change Victims in a Complex World // Utah Law Review. Vol. 377. 2008.
[24] Faure M.G., Nollkaemper A. International liability as an instrument to prevent and compensate for climate change // Stanford Journal of International Law. Vol. 43. 2007.
[25] Gerrard M. Threatened island nations : legal implications of rising seas and a changing climate / M.B. Gerrard, G.E. Wannier.– Cambridge University Press 2013.
[26] Gippsland Coastal Board v South Gippsland SC & Ors (No 2) (includes Summary) (Red Dot) [2008] // Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal. - Vol. 1545. 2008.
[27] Global Database, Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.idpguidingprinciples.org/
[28] Gray v Minister for Planning and Ors [2006] [Text] // New South Wales Land and Environment Court. 2006.
[29] Hodgkinson D., Young L. “In the Face of Looming Catastrophe”. A Convention for Climate-Change-Displaced Persons [Text] // Threatened Island Nations. Legal implications of rising seas and a changing climate / Edited by Michael B. Gerrard, Gregory E. Wannier. – Cambridge/ New York: Cambridge university press, 2013.
[30] IOM. Migration and Climate Change. // URL: http://www.iom.int/cms/envmig?jsite=cfa837f7-c6df-4e9b-b15b-4e1ac2a53e05
[31] Jesus J.L. Rocks, New-Born Islands, Sea Level Rise and Maritime Space // Verhandeln für den Frieden. Negotiating for Peace. / Eds. J. Frowein et al. – Berlin: Springer, 2003.
[32] Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion (July 8) // I.C.J. Rep. 1996. [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/95/7495.pdf
[33] Maldives submission to the Oice of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, September 25th 2008, Human Rights Council Resolution 7/23. // URL: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/OHCHRanalyticalstudyClimateChan...
[34] McAdam J. Swimming against the Tide: Why a Climate Change Displacement Treaty Is Not the Answer // International Journal of Refugee Law. – Vol. 23. - № 2. 2011.
[35] Nauru country brief. // URL: http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/nauru/nauru_brief.html
[36] Perritt H.H., Jr., Structures and Standards for Political Trusteeship // UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs. – Fall/Winter. 2003.
[37] PlanetArk.com, Tuvalu Seeks Help in US Global Warming Lawsuit, Planet Ark, Aug. 30, 2002. // URL: www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/17514/story.htm
[38] Powers A., Stucko Ch. Introducing the Law of the Sea and the Legal Implications of Rising Sea Levels // Threatened Island Nations. Legal implications of rising seas and a changing climate / Edited by Michael B. Gerrard, Gregory E. Wannier. – Cambridge: University Press, 2013.
[39] Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Arg. v. Uru.), Judgment (Apr. 20, 2010). // URL: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/135/15877.pdf
[40] Rayfuse R. International Law and Disappearing States: Utilising Maritime Entitlements to Overcome the Statehood Dilemma [Text] // University of New South Wales Faculty of Law Research Series, at 1 (Univ. of New South Wales, Paper No. 52, 2010)
[41] Stoutenburg J.G. When Do States Disappear? Thresholds of Effective Statehood and the Continued Recognition of “Deterritorialized” Island States // Threatened Island Nations. Legal implications of rising seas and a changing climate. / Edited by Michael B. Gerrard, Gregory E. Wannier. – Cambridge: University Press, 2013
[42] The Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal. [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.nuclearclaimstribunal.com/
[43] Threatened Pacific Island Nation makes legal history by challenging European carbon emitter. Press release - May 23, 2011. // URL: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/press/releases/Threatened-Pac...
[44] U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, Climate Change and Statelessness: An Overview (May 15, 2009). // URL: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4a2d189d3.html
[45] UNECE, Guidance on the Practical Application of the Espoo Convention § 2.4.1 (2006). // URL: http://www.unece.org/env/documents/2006/eia/ece.mp.eia.8.pdf
[46] United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Conference of the Parties, Decision -/CP.16, Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (2010). // URL: http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/cop 16/application/pdf/cop16 lca.pdf
[47] UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, Cancun, Mex., Nov. 29–Dec. 10, 2010 [hereafter COP16], Action Taken by the Conference of the Parties, Decision 1/CP.16. UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1 (March 15, 2011). // URL: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.pdf
[48] UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, Durban, South Africa., Nov. 28- Dec. 11, 2011 [hereafter COP17], Action Taken by the Conference of the Parties, Decision 2/CP.16, Annex V, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1 (March 15, 2012). // URL: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2011/cop17/eng/09a01.pdf
[49] UNFCCC COP 13, Bali, Indon., Dec. 3–14, 2007, Report on the Dialogue on Long-Term Cooperative Action by Enhancing Implementation of the Convention: Note by the co-facilitators, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2007/4/Add.1. [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/cop13/eng/04a01.pdf
[50] UNGA, Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Doc. A/HRC/13/21. // URL: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G10/101/61/PDF/G1010161.pdf?O...
[51] United Nations News Centre, Palau Seeks UN World Court Opinion on Damag Caused by Greenhouse Gases, United Nations (Sept. 22, 2011). // URL: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39710&Cr=pacific+island&Cr1=#
[52] United States v. Alaska // US Supreme Court. – 1997. – Vol. 521. – P. 1-73. // URL: http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/521/1/case.html
[53] Verwaltungsgericht Köln [VK] [Administrative Court of Cologne], May 3, 1978, Case № 9 K 2565/77 // Deutsches Verwaltungsblatt 510, at 511 et seq., 1978.
[54] Walker v Minister for Planning [2007] // New South Wales Land and Environment Court. Vol. 741. 2007.
[55] Website of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. [Elektronnyj resurs]. // URL: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/climatechange/index.htm.
[56] Werksman J.D. Could a Small Island Successfully Sue a Big Emitter? Pursuing a Legal Theory and a Venue for Climate Justice [Text] // Threatened Island Nations. Legal implications of rising seas and a changing climate / Edited by Michael B. Gerrard, Gregory E. Wannier. – Cambridge/New York: Cambridge university press, 2013.
[57] WWF-UK Climate Change Programme, Beyond Adaptation: The Legal Duty to Pay Compensation for Climate Change Damage 15 (2008). // URL: http://wwf.org.uk/climate
[58] Schwarte C., Byrne R. International climate change litigation and the negotiation process - Working paper FIELD, 2010. // URL: http://www.climnet.org/resources/doc_view/1942-field-international-clima...